[qdeck] [q]Please click on the Flip button.
[a]These cards will test you on the key concepts of Chapter 13: Matched Pairs, Within-Subjects, and Mixed Designs  When you see a box, type your answer in that box.
Then, click the Flip back  button to check your answer.  To get
started, click the Show next card button.

[q] The main reason within-subjects designs are popular because is because they are a very ______ design. They are powerful because they (a) eliminate between-subject error and (b) get more than one observation per participant. [textentry] [c]powerful; power [a] Yes. [c]* [a] The main reason within-subjects designs are popular because is because they are a very ______ design.

[q] Of all the designs, ___________ designs give you the greatest power with the fewest participants. [textentry] [c]within subjects; within-subjects; repeated measures; repeated-measures [a] You know it. [c]* [a] No, the within-subjects designs (also called repeated measures designs) have the most power of any experimental design.

[q] One reason within-subjects designs are so powerful is because they eliminate ________ _______ ________. [textentry] [c] between subjects error; between-subjects error; between subjects variance; between-subjects variance [a] Right! [c]* [a]One reason within-subjects designs are so powerful is because they eliminate  between subjects error variance.

[q] The matched-pairs design usually has more power than a simple experiment because the matching usually allows the matched pairs design to have less ____ ______ _____ than a simple experiment. [textentry] [c] between-subjects error; between subjects error, between subjects variance; between-subjects variance [a] Correct. [c]* [a] The matched-pairs design usually has more power than a simple experiment because the matching usually allows the matched pairs design to have less between-subjects error than a simple experiment.

[q] Like the simple experiment, the matched-pairs design has internal validity because participants are ____ ______ to condition.[textentry] [c] randomly assigned [a] Correct. [c] matching [a] No, matching gives the design power, but random assignment is what gives it internal validity. [c]* [a] The matched-pairs design has internal validity because participants are randomly assigned to condition.

[q] __________ is what gives the matched-pairs design internal validity.[textentry] [c] random assignment [a]You're right. [c] matching [a] No, matching gives the design power, but random assignment is what gives it internal validity. [c]* [a] The matched-pairs design has internal validity because participants are randomly assigned to condition.

[q] The _______ t test is a statistical test for analyzing pure between-subjects designs (i.e., simple experiments) that use only two levels of the treatment. [textentry] [c] independent; between-subjects [a] Yes, you chose the right test. [c]* [a] For simple experiments, you should use an independent t test.

[q] You should use the dependent t test to analyze the results of a _______ experiment. [textentry] [c] matched-pairs; within-subjects [a] Yes, you chose the right design for that test. [c]* [a] For matched-pairs experiments, you should use a dependent t test.

[q] You should use the ________ t test to analyze the results of a within-subjects experiment that uses two levels of a single independent variable. [textentry] [c] dependent [a] Yes, you chose the right design for that test. [c]* [a] For within-subjects experiments that have only two levels of a single independent variable, you should use the dependent t test.

[q] In a randomized within-subjects design, to control for order effects, researchers _________determine which treatment a participant gets first, which the participant gets second, and so on. In other words, participants all get the same treatments, but they receive different sequences of treatments. [textentry] [c] randomly [a] Right! [c]* [a] The answer is randomly.

[q] In a randomized within-subjects design, to control for _____ effects, researchers randomly assign participants to different sequences of treatments. [textentry] [c] order [a] Correct [c]* [a] No, within-subjects experimenters need to be concerned about order effects.

[q] In a two-level, within-subjects experiment, ________ is whether a treatment occurs first or second. It is a within-subjects variable. [textentry] [c] order [a] Yes! [c]* [a] No, order is whether a treatment comes first or second.

[q] In a two-level, within-subjects experiment, order is whether a treatment occurs first or second. Order is a _____-subjects variable. [textentry] [c] within [a] Yes! [c]* [a] No, order is a within-subjects variable.

[q] In a two-level, within-subjects experiment, sequence is whether participants get Treatment 1 and then Treatment 2 or participants get Treatment 2 and then Treatment 1. Sequence is a _____-subjects variable. [textentry] [c] between [a] Yes! [c]* [a] No, sequence is a between-subjects variable.

[q] If participants getting Treatment 1 and then Treatment 2 score higher than participants getting Treatment 2 and then Treatment 1, there is a(n) ______ effect. [textentry] [c] sequence [a] You're right [c]* [a] No, this is a sequence effect: Participants getting the Treatment 1, then Treatment 2 sequence score higher than those participants getting the Treatment 2, then Treatment 1 sequence.

[q] ________ effects may be due to practice effects, fatigue effects, carryover effects, or sensitization. [textentry] [c] order [a] Right! [c]* [a] No, order effects may be due to practice effects, fatigue effects, carryover effects, or sensitization.

[q] Order effects may be due to practice effects, _______effects, carryover effects, or sensitization. [textentry] [c] fatigue [a] Right! [c]* [a] No, order effects may be due to practice effects, fatigue effects, carryover effects, or sensitization.

[q] Order effects may be due to practice effects, fatigue effects, carryover effects, or _________. [textentry] [c] sensitization [a] Right! [c]* [a] No, order effects may be due to practice effects, fatigue effects, carryover effects, or sensitization.

[q] In a within-subjects design, _______ effects might cause an decrease in scores over trials that might be incorrectly interpreted as a treatment effect.[textentry] [c] fatigue [a] Right! [c]* [a] Sorry, fatigue effects might cause a decrease in scores over trials that might be incorrectly interpreted as a treatment effect.

[q] Fatigue effects could be viewed as negative _______ effects.[textentry] [c] practice [a] You're getting it. [c]* [a] The answer we were looking for was that fatigue effects could be viewed as negative practice effects.

[q] In within-subjects designs, sensitization could harm both internal validity and ______ validity.[textentry] [c] construct [a] Right! [c]* [a] The answer we were looking for was that sensitization could harm both internal validity and construct validity.

[q] _______ effects are due to decreased performance on the dependent measure due to being tired or less enthusiastic as the experiment continues. [textentry] [c] fatigue [a] That's right. [c]* [a] Fatigue effects are due to decreased performance on the dependent measure due to being tired or less enthusiastic as the experiment continues

[q] ________ effects refers to the lingering or delayed effects of a treatment administered earlier in the experiment persist so long that they are present even while participants are receiving additional treatments. [textentry] [c] carryover; carry-over; treatment carryover [a] Yes! [c]* [a] Carryover effects is the answer we were looking for.

[q] Lengthening the time between treatments may reduce ________effects. [textentry] [c] carryover [a] Right, with more time, the effects of an earlier treatment are less likely to linger. [c]* [a] Lengthening the time between treatments may reduce carryover effects.

[q] Shortening the experiment may reduce ________ effects. [textentry] [c] fatigue [a] Right, with less time, there is less time for participants to get fatigued. [c]* [a] with less time, there is less time for participants to get bored or fatigued.

[q] Giving participants extensive warm-up may reduce practice effects but increase _______ effects. [textentry] [c] practice [a] Right, participants may get bored with your task. [c]* [a] Unfortunately, you may be increasing how long the participant is in the study and decreasing the novelty of your task, which may result in boredom and fatigue.

[q] As a participant in within-subjects experiment goes from trial to trial, the participant may become more aware of what the hypothesis is. This threat to both construct and internal validity is called _______________________ . [textentry] [c]sensitization [a] Good! [c]* [a]The right answer is sensitization.

[q] One aspect of sensitization is that the participant is more aware of what the hypothesis is during later trials than in earlier trials. Becoming more aware of what the hypothesis during the later trials may create a(n) ______ effect which could harm the study's internal validity. [textentry] [c]order [a] Good job. [c]* [a] We were hoping you would say that this awareness might create an order effect.

[q] _________ designs give participants the treatments in systematically different sequences. [textentry] [c]counterbalanced within-subjects; counterbalanced [a]Yes. [c]* [a]No, counterbalanced designs give participants the treatments in systematically different sequences.

[q] Counterbalanced designs balance out routine ______ effects. [textentry] [c]order [a]True. [c]sequence [a]No, you may be confusing sequence with order. Counterbalanced designs give participants different sequences of treatments to balance out order effects. To illustrate, suppose that in a counterbalanced design, half the participants get the treatments in the sequence: A first and then B, and the other half get the treatments in the sequence: B first and then A. In this case, routine order effects should not mimic a treatment effect. For example, if participants tend to do better on the first trial, that should not make A scores higher than B scores because both A and B were first half of the time. [c]* [a]No, counterbalanced within-subjects designs balance out routine order effects.

[q] Counterbalanced designs are _____ designs. [textentry] [c]mixed [a]Good. [c]* [a]No, counterbalanced within-subjects designs are mixed designs.

[q] Counterbalanced designs have the variable of sequence as a _______- subjects variable. [textentry] [c]between [a]That's right. [c]* [a]No, in counterbalanced designs, sequence is a between-subjects variable: Different participants are randomly assigned to different sequences.

[q] Counterbalanced designs have the variables of treatment and ______ as a within- subjects variable. [textentry] [c]order; trials [a]Correct. [c]* [a]No, in counterbalanced designs, order is a within-subjects variable.

[q] In a counterbalanced design, the sequence X treatment interaction may reflect the _____ effect. [textentry] [c] order [a] Well done! [c]* [a] No, in counterbalanced designs, the sequence X treatment interaction may reflect the order effect.

[q] A ______ design has at least one within-subjects factor and one between-subjects factor. [textentry] [c]mixed [a]Correct [c]* [a]No, a mixed design has at least one within-subjects factor and one between-subjects factor.

[q] Because the counterbalanced design is a mixed design, it may require ____ participants than a pure within-subjects design--especially if the researcher is interested in sequence effects.[textentry] [c]more [a]Right!To have enough power to test the between-subjects factor of sequence, more participants may be needed. [c]* [a]Sorry, the answer we were looking for was that the counterbalanced design might require more participants than a pure within-subjects design.

[/qdeck]