[a]These cards will test you on the key concepts of Chapter 10: The Simple Experiment. When you see a box, type your answer in that box.

Then, click the Flip back button to check your answer. To get started, click the Show next card button. (To challenge yourself, click the Shuffle button.)

[q]A _______ treatment is a fake treatment that we know has no effect, except through the power of suggestion [textentry] [c] placebo; placebo treatment; nocebo [a] Yes. [c]* [a] The answer we were looking for was placebo.

[q] A ____ study is one in which either the participant or the experimenter is unaware of which treatment the participant is getting. [textentry] [c] single blind; single-blind; single masked [a] Yes, you were right. [c]* [a] No, the correct answer is single blind or single masked. [q] To reduce both participant and researcher bias, a researcher might conduct a _______ study in which neither the participant nor the research assistant knows what type of treatment the participant is getting,[textentry] [c] double blind; double-blind; double masked; double-masked [a] Right! [c]* [a]Sorry, we were looking for either double blind or double masked.

[q] The participants who are randomly assigned to get the treatment are called the ________ ______[textentry] [c] experimental group [a] Correct--but remember that they name is misleading because they are not really a group. [c] independent variable [a] No, the experimental group gets a higher or different level of the independent variable, but it is composed of participants--not variables (e.g., in an experiment that manipulated the amount of caffeine, the experimental group consists of the participants WHO got caffeine. Caffeine is the independent variable.) [c]* [a] Sorry, the answer is experimental group.

[q] The participants who are randomly assigned to get NO treatment or a placebo treatment are called the ________ ______[textentry] [c] control group; empty control group [a] Correct--but remember that they name is misleading because they are not really a group. [c] dependent variable [a] No, the control group gets a lower or different level of the independent variable, but it is composed of participants--not variables (e.g., in an experiment that looked at caffeine's effect on running speed, the control group consists of the participants WHO did NOT get caffeine. Running speed is the dependent variable.) [c]* [a] Sorry, the answer is control group.

[q]In an experiment, participants who do not receive any kind of treatment, not even a placebo treatment, would be a(n) _____ _______ _______. [textentry] [c] empty control group [a] Yes, an empty control group. [c]* [a] Those participants should be referred to as an empty control group.

[q] The _____ ______ is what the experimenter manipulates.[textentry] [c] independent variable [a] Right! The experimenter varies it independently of the participant's wishes. [c] dependent variable [a] No, the dependent variable is what the participant does that the experimenter measures. [c]control group [a] No, the experimental group are participants--not vaariables. The experimental group is often given a higher amount of the independent variable than the control group. [c]* [a] What you should have said was independent variable.

[q] The different amounts or kinds of treatments are referred to as different _______ of the independent variable. [textentry] [c] levels [a] Yes, different amounts or kinds of the treatment are referred to as the different levels of the independent variable. [c]* [a] The correct answer is levels.

[q] The different amounts or kinds of treatments are referred to as different levels of the __________ _______. [textentry] [c] independent variable; IV [a] Yes, different amounts or kinds of the treatment are referred to as the different levels of the independent variable. [c] dependent variable [a] Don't confuse dependent variable (the key MEASURED variable) with independent variable (the MANIPULATED variable). [c]* [a] The correct answer is independent variable.

[q] Participants' scores (the response that the researcher hypothesizes will be affected by the treatment variable) are referred to as the _______ ________. measuring. [textentry] [c] dependent variable; dependent measure [a] Right! [c] independent variable [a] You are mixing up independent and dependent variable. To remember that scores are the dependent variable, you might think of of the dependent variable as the data variable. [c]* [a] No, the right answer is dependent variable. It may help you to remember that scores DEPEND on the participant.

[q] If your results are not statistically significant and you had few participants, the failure to find significant results may be due to lack of [textentry] [c]power [a] Good! [c]* [a]The correct answer is power: the ability to find to find significant differences when a relationship exists. [q] A study with high _________ is unlikely to make a Type 2 error. [textentry] [c]power [a] Good! [c]* [a]The correct answer is power: the ability to find to find significant differences when a relationship exists. In other words, the more power, the fewer Type 2 errors.

[q] _____ results may be due to Type 2 errors. [textentry] [c]null; nonsignificant [a] Good! [c]* [a]Null results may be due to Type 2 errors. [q]_______ results fail to prove the null hypothesis. [textentry] [c]null; nonsignificant [a]Yes, null (nonsignificant) results are inconclusive. [c]* [a]No, null (nonsignificant) results are inconclusive.

[q]_____ results are inconclusive [textentry] [c]null; nonsignificant [a]Correct [c]* [a]Sorry, null results (also called nonsignificant) results are inconclusive.

[q] Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true would be making a Type ____ error. [textentry] [c]1;one [a]Right! [c] 2; two [a] No, a Type 2 error is when you fail to reject the null hypothesis when it is false. That is, you fail to detect the effect. [c]* [a]The correct answer is Type 1 error: If you reject the null hypothesis when it is true, you have raised a false alarm (you have " cried wolf ")

[q] Failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false would be making a Type ____ error. .[textentry] [c]2; two [a] Correct [c]1;one [a] No, a Type 1 error is when you reject the null hypothesis when it is true. [c]* [a]No, experimental hypotheses answer "why" questions; descriptive hypotheses answer "what" questions.

[q] If we reject the null hypothesis, our results are _______ ________ [textentry] [c]statistically significant [a]Right! [c]* [a]We were looking for the answer: statistically significant.

[q] If our results are statistically significant, we _______ the null hypothesis.[textentry] [c]reject [a]Yes! [c]* [a]We were looking for the answer: reject.

[q] If our results are not statistically significant, we ______ _ _______ the null hypothesis.[textentry] [c]fail to reject [a]Yes! [c]* [a]Sorry, the answer we were looking for was fail to reject.

[q] If our p value is less than .05 and the null hypothesis is true, we would obtain such a finding less than ___ percent of the time. [textentry] [c]5; five [a]You got it. [c]* [a]No, we would obtain such a result less than 5 percent of the time. [q]If our p value is less than .05, we would probably say that our results were _________ ____________. [textentry] [c]statistically significant [a]That is correct. [c]* [a]No, our results would be statistically significant.

[q] The top half of the t ratio is the _________ between the means of the two groups. [textentry] [c]difference [a]Right! [c]* [a]No, the top half of the t ratio is the difference between the two means.

[q] The bottom part of the t ratio is the _________ ___ __ ___ ____. [textentry] [c]standard error of the difference; sed; standard error of the difference between means [a]Right! [c]* [a]No, the bottom part of the t ratio is the standard error of the difference.

[q] To analyze interval data from a simple experiment, you would probably use a ___ test.[textentry] [c] t; ANOVA [a] Correct. [c]* [a] No, interval data would be analyzed using a t test

[q] The t test assumes that the distribution of sample means is _______ distributed.[textentry] [c]normally [a]Yes! [c]* [a]No, the t test assumes that the distribution of sample means is normally distributed.

[q] According to the central limit theorem, with ______ enough samples, the distribution of sample means will be normally distributed. [textentry] [c]large [a]Right! [c]* [a]The answer is large enough.

[q]According to the ______ ______ _______, with large enough samples, the distribution of sample means will be normally distributed. [textentry] [c] central limit theorem; CLT [a]Right! [c]* [a] The answer is central limit theorem

[q]If your data are not normally distributed but you have more than 30 participants in each group, you can still assume that the distribution of sample means will be normally distributed thanks to the ___ ___ ____. [textentry] [c]central limit theorem; CLT [a]Right! [c]* [a]The answer is central limit theorem

[q] If a question asks a person to put themselves in a certain category (e.g., by race or gender) or to pick from several qualitatively different options (e.g., Do you prefer biking or tennis?), the question will produce ______ data. [textentry] [c]nominal [a]Yes. It is a nominal item that will yield nominal data. If it only offers two choices, it is a nominal dichotomous item. [c]* [a]No. It is a nominal item that will yield nominal data. If it only offers two choices, it is a nominal dichotomous item.

[q] The ____ hypothesis can't be proven because the failure to reject it may be due to a lack of power.[textentry] [c]null [a]Yes! [c]* [a]The null hypothesis can't be proven because the failure to reject it may be due to a lack of power. [q] The _____ hypothesis does not hypothesize a relationship between variables. [textentry] [c]null [a]Yes [c]* [a]No, the null hypothesis does not hypothesize a relationship between variables.

[q] Hypothesis testing involves trying to disprove the _____ hypothesis [textentry] [c]null [a]Good job. [c]* [a]No, hypothesis testing involves trying to disprove the null hypothesis .

[q] Thanks to random assignment, the control group and the experimental group are two random samples of a unique _________: all the participants in your experiment. [textentry] [c]population [a]Yes! [c]* [a]Sorry, the answer we were looking for was population.

[q]If you have a random sample of a population, you can use ________ statistics to make inferences about the population.[textentry] [c]inferential [a] True [c]* [a]No, the answer is inferential.

[q] You can use inferential statistics to make inferences about the population from a _______ ________ of that population.[textentry] [c]random sample [a] Right. [c]* [a]No, the answer is random sample.

[q]________ designs have internal validity. [textentry] [c]experimental; experiments [a] Very good! [c]* [a]No, it is experimental designs that have high internal validity.

[q] One reason experimental designs are so respected is because they tend to have a high degree of _______ validity. [textentry] [c]internal [a] You can say that again. [c]* [a]No, internal validity-- the ability to make cause-effect statements--is where experiments excel.

[q]If you need to make cause-effect statements, you need a design that has ______ validity.[textentry] [c]internal [a] Right, again! [c]* [a]No, internal validity is about making cause-effect statements.

[q]In the simple experiment, observations must be _______. [textentry] [c]independent [a]Right [c]* [a]Sorry, the right answer is that observations must be independent.

[q]Individually assigning participants to treatment or no-treatment condition and individually testing each participant are ways to meet a key assumption of almost all statistical tests: _______. [textentry] [c]independence; independent observations [a]Right [c]* [a]Sorry, the right answer in independence.

[q]To achieve_________, a requirement of almost any statistical test, what one participant does should have no influence on what another participant does, and what happens to one participant should not influence what happens to another participant. [textentry] [c]independence [a]Right [c]* [a]Sorry, the right answer in independence.

[q]_________ ______ __________ to experimental condition is the cornerstone of the simple experiment. [textentry] [c]Independent random assignment [a]Correct [c]* [a]We know that you know that the correct answer is independent random assignment

[q]If you flipped a coin for each participant to determine whether that participant receives the treatment, you would be approximating _________ ______ __________. [textentry] [c]Independent random assignment [a]Correct [c]* [a]No, the right answer is independent random assignment.

[q] The _______ _______ is a prediction that the treatment will cause an effect. [textentry] [c]experimental hypothesis [a]Correct, experimental hypothesis. [c]* [a]Sorry, the correct answer is experimental hypothesis.

[q] The _______ _______ is a prediction that will usually be supported if the null hypothesis is rejected. [textentry] [c]experimental hypothesis [a]That's right! [c]* [a]No, the correct answer is experimental hypothesis.

[q] The _______ _______ is a prediction that the independent variable will have an effect on the dependent variable. [textentry] [c]experimental hypothesis [a]Correct, experimental hypothesis. [c]* [a]Sorry, the correct answer is experimental hypothesis. [q] The ______ _________states that any difference observed between the treatment and no-treatment groups is due to chance. [textentry] [c]null hypothesis [a]You're right [c]* [a]Sorry, the correct answer is null hypothesis.

[q] The _____ _______ can be disproven, but it cannot be proven. [textentry] [c]null hypothesis [a]You're right [c]* [a]No, the right answer is null hypothesis. [q] The _____ ______ is that there is no treatment effect. [textentry] [c]null hypothesis [a]Good [c]* [a]You should have said null hypothesis.

[q]The ______ ________ is a study in which participants are independently and randomly assigned to one of two conditions. [textentry] [c]simple experiment [a]Right! [c]* [a]You should have simply said simple experiment.

[q]The ______ ________ is the easiest way to establish that a treatment causes an effect. [textentry] [c]simple experiment [a]Right! [c]* [a]No, it's simply the simple experiment.

[q]The simple experiment is the simplest way to establish ______ validity. [textentry] [c]internal [a]You have chosen wisely. [c]* [a]No, it is a simple way to establish internal validity--that a treatment caused an effect.

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