pp. 176-180 The importance of making rational arguments and three major tools for making such arguments: clear definitions, deduction, and induction
pp. 178 -180 Inductive arguments
pp. 181-183 (Nonobjective thinking): For a good list of what not to do, look at Dave Barry's humorous article "How to Argue Effectively." Note that to show that you are not making things up, you should cite your sources. You should also forget, rather than memorize, Dave's list of meaningless words and phrases. The next to the last paragraph is a funny example of using ad hominem attacks.
pp. 183-186 Inferring causation from correlation This short article does a good job of explaining the value of control groups.