Test Yourself

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1. Internal validity is important if you are trying to establish that a treatment works.
2. A before-after study will have internal validity.
3. Researcher assignment to group eliminates selection bias.
4. Matching participants on multiple variables can eliminate selection bias.
5. In a two-group (treatment group versus no-treatment group) study, the biggest threat to internal validity is selection bias.
6. Some 60% shooters may score 50% on a free throw shooting test.
7. Groups matched on pretest scores will always really be the same on the pretest variable.
8. The pretest variable is the only variable (other than the treatment) that determines posttest scores.
9. Regression toward the mean can occur because scores are affected by random error.
10. If two groups score the same on the pretest, they will score the same on the posttest­­if neither is given a treatment.
11. Selection by maturation occurs because posttest scores are affected by variables other than pretest scores.
12. If selection bias is eliminated, a two-group design will have internal validity.

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