Test Yourself

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1. A study based on ex post facto data (e.g., information about participants´ characteristics and performance on the dependent measure) can have internal validity­­provided that the original study was an experiment.
2. Relative to ex post facto data, archival data is likely to have less ____ validity.
3. The more objective the content analysis scheme, the more valid it will be.
4. A main reason that archival data can sometimes have more construct validity than other measures is that
5. Studies based on archival data may fail to provide information about individuals.
6. Naturalistic observation poses more ethical problems than participant observation.
7. The strength of psychological tests is their

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