IV. Approach #4: Psychoanalysis (an approach that emphasizes unconscious
motives and conflicts. At one time, this approach was
also called "psychodynamic," but that term is no longer considered
synonymous with the traditional psychoanalytic approach.)
A. View of humans
B. What should psychology be?
C. Founded by Freud, who believed that there was conflict
among your three personalities:
id: (the "it"), governed by the pleasure
principle, the container of inherited psychological energy.
It has survival drives such as
ego: (the "I"), governed by the reality
principle, the center of reason, but not m________
superego: (the "above me"), governed by the morality
principle, represents internalized social standards
D. Weaknesses/Common Objections
1. What is the evidence for a powerful unconscious
2. Is the therapy based on the theory more effective than other therapies?
Popular objections (but not necessarily problems with the
- "Freud puts too much emphasis on childhood. He makes
it seem like we are prisoners of our past experiences."
- "Freud is too obsessed with sex."
- "Freud underestimates the power of the conscious, rational mind."
- "Freud picture of humans is too negative."
E. Recent changes/discoveries
F. Application to Therapy: Make the unconscious conscious
But how do you achieve insight? Hint: Not by using hypnosis.
1. Dream interpretation ("the royal road to the
If you want to see--not as a serious thing but just for fun--how one
might use this technique, try this
2. Freudian slips
3. Word association
4. Free association and analysis of resistance
5. Projective tests
By now you should be able to:
- Describe the main focus of psychoanalysis.
- Explain how Freud's theory is consistent with the theory of evolution.
- Define the terms id, ego, and superego.
- Explain why Freud's theory is not considered scientific.
- List three common objections to Freud's theory and explain why those
objections could be considered irrelevant to the validity of the
- Explain how Freud might diagnose and treat a violent individual.
- Explain how psychoanalysis differs from cognitive therapy.
- Explain how psychoanalysis differs from the neurophysiological approach.
- Describe at least three techniques that psychoanalysts might use and explain
why they would use those techniques.
- Explain how Freud and Watson would differ in how they treated a child's
fear of horses.
In addition, you should
Go through this
photobiography of Freud
- Watch this short (2 minute)
animated video about one of Freud's famous cases--Little Hans
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