(a variety of approaches that emphasize personal growth, self-esteem, and the achievement of human potential more than the scientific understanding, prediction, and control of behavior)
A. View of humans:
B. What can't psychology be?
What shouldn't psychology be?
What should it be?
C. Founded by Maslow as the "Third Force" to counteract the two other forces that were dominating psychology:
Force #1 the "over-scientific" attitude of behaviorism and
Force #2 the "over-pessimistic" attitude of psychoanalysis.
Maslow believed strongly in self-actualization:
our innate drive to be the best we can be.
Examples of self-actualization:
D. Problems: Because it wasn't a scientific approach, it has harmed people while trying to help them.
E. Key research discoveries related to humanism
1. Value of training to be a good listenerF. Humanism as therapy
2. Value of therapist's personal qualities
3. Effectiveness of humanistic therapy
1. Less conventional approaches
2. Perls' Gestalt Psychology
3. Rogers' client-centered, non-directive therapy
The cause of your problems--incongruence:
How you became incongruent--conditions of worth:
Two (nondirective) tools for bring you back to congruence:
- Unconditional positive regard:
- Active listening:See how a computer program (Eliza) practices active listening. (Note: She even has the pauses that Rogerian therapists have)
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